**Source Info PGA.com & Wikipedia.org. Information Compiled, adapted & updated by MST Golf Online | Last update 29 May 2020**


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Ace (also Hole-in-One):
When a player hits the ball directly from the tee into the hole with one stroke. Also called a hole in one.

The act of taking a stance and placing the club-head behind the ball. If the ball moves once a player has addressed the ball, there is a one-stroke penalty. Unless it is clear that the act of the player did not cause the ball to move on purpose. If the player addresses the ball and places the head of the club behind it and in doing this causes the ball to move, a one shot penalty does not occur in this case.

Definition: “the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and other gases and with the effects of such motion on bodies in the medium”. Most brands utilize aerodynamics to improve the speeds at which their club heads move, predominantly in drivers. There are various techniques, from shaping the crown and sole to adding ribs on the top-line alter drag behind the head.

Refers to a score made over more than one round of play, or by two or more players playing as partners.

The act of aligning the club face to the intended target. (She had a problem aiming the club properly all day and missed several shots to the right of her target).

The position of the body in relation to the initial target. (One reason she plays so well is that her alignment is so consistent from one shot to the next).

A hole played three strokes under par. Also called a double eagle.

Aluminum (Metal used in Club Construction):
Aluminum is a soft, light-weight metal which is highly pliable allowing complex lightweight designs to be achieved. Due to the softer properties of the metal it is generally used in a Multi-Material Construction and usually exclusively used in putters, or as weighting (Lightweight Option) in some clubs. The TaylorMade Spider S putter utilizes a body constructed of Aerospace grade Aluminum combined with a massive Tungsten weight for a MOI value of 6000!

Angle of Approach (or Attack):
A term that describes the relative angle which the club head approaches the ball at impact which, in turn, helps determine the distance and trajectory which the ball travels. (He hit the ball with a sharply descending angle of attack, which caused the ball to fly high enough to carry over the tall trees).

All square (AS):
In match play, a match is all square (tied) when both players or teams have won the same number of holes.

Ambrose (Format of Play):
A system of team play whereby each player takes a tee shot, after which the most favorable ball position is chosen. All the team's players then take a shot from this new position, and so on. (Also known as a Texas Scramble)

A shot hit towards the green (His approach shot to the 17th hole came up short of the green) or towards the hole (Sam Snead was a great approach putter).

The grass surface on the perimeter of the green that separates it from the surrounding fairway or rough. Also known as frog-hair, or fringe.

Attend (the flag-stick):
When a player holds and removes the flag-stick for another player.

Describing the golfer whose ball is farthest from the hole. The player who is away should always play first.

Generally refers to a straight line (the Spine) that the upper body rotates around in the course of the golf swing. (One reason for her consistent ball striking is that her axis remains in a constant position throughout the swing).



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Back Nine:
The last nine holes of an 18-hole golf course. Playing the back nine is called "heading in". 

The motion that involves the club and every element of the body in taking the club away from the ball and setting it in position at the top of the back swing from which the club can be delivered to the ball at impact. (John Daly has an unusually long back swing that causes the club to go past parallel at the top of the swing).

Backspin (also Spin or Spin Rate):
The rotational movement or spin of the ball produced by contact with the club face. The greater the backspin, the higher the ball will fly and the more it will spin, and therefore stop or even spin backwards on impact with the turf. (The ball had so much backspin that when it hit the green it spun back into the water hazard).

Balance (Swing):
The proper distribution of weight both at address and throughout the swing is referenced as balance. (Tom Watson's swing has always been characterized by perfect balance).

Balance (Club) (See also Swing-Weight):
Clubs are all designed within very stringent specifications with every detail including component weight calculated during its design concept. The balance of a club is referenced using a Swing-Weight Scale with the average Men’s Club equating to D2 (D4 in Wedges) while Women’s clubs are usually around the C9 mark.

A rubber-like substance used as a cover material for golf balls in the late 80's and early 90's. Pure balata is rarely, if ever, used today most brands opt for Urethane or other blended synthetic covers instead. Many players prefer balata or balata-like covers because it provides a softer feel. And can provide increased spin. (Most of the players in the championship played with balata-covered balls).

Ball (also Golf Ball):
A small sphere used in playing golf, which is intended to be struck by a player swinging a club. Balls are usually white, covered in dimples, and made of a variety of materials.

A token or a small coin used to spot the ball's position on the green prior to lifting it.

A device found on many tees for cleaning golf balls.

The result of a severe slice that results in a trajectory in the shape of a banana. This is also referred to as an extreme slice.

Bare Lie:
When the ball lies directly on hard ground without any grass to buoy the ball up, (i.e.), where there is no grass creating a gap between ball and the ground. Applicable when practicing off hard mats.

Best ball (also Better Ball or Better Ball Stableford):
A form of team play using two-, three-, or four-person teams. The team score on each hole is the lowest score obtained by one of the team members. For example, if player A has a 5, player B has a 6, player C has a 4, and player D has a 5, the "best ball" and team score is a 4.

A hole whose green incorporates a deep gulley that effectively splits the putting surface in two. Named after a famous example at "Le Phare Golf Club" in Biarritz, France. This original par-3 3d hole by the ocean is long built over.

Is the professional association in the United Kingdom dealing with all matters of golf management from a greens-keeper's viewpoint. For the U.S. equivalent, see GCSAA.

Baseball Grip (also Called Hammer Grip):
A grip in which all ten fingers are placed on the grip of the club. (Bob Rosburg was a very successful player who used a baseball grip).

A score of one under par on a hole. (Her birdie on the 10th hole was a turning point in the match).

Some players put a great deal of Spin on their approach shots causing the ball to stop immediately when it hits the green. This phenomenon is referred to as biting or checking. Depending on the amount of backspin, the ball may suck backwards.

A bunker shot that sends the ball, and accompanying sand, (hopefully) onto the green. Also known as an explosion.

Blind (shot):
A shot that does not allow the golfer to see where the ball will land, such as onto an elevated green from below.

Blade (Also Full Blade or Muscle Back Blade)(Club):
A very traditional iron designed with the Weighting in a pad shape directly attached to the face. The designs have improved over the years and modern versions feature some or all of the following: Progressive CG, Progressive Offset, Milling (Face or Body), Multi-material Construction. The blade is sought after by highly skilled players due to its remarkable flight control and precision properties, they however remain the most difficult clubs to hit.

Bladed Shot:
Often referred to as a "skulled" shot, it occurs when the top half of the ball is struck with the bottom (Sole) portion of an iron, resulting a low-running shot. (She bladed her approach shot but the ball ran onto the green and set up her putt for a birdie.)

A swing in which the rotation of the forearms is delayed or prevented throughout the hitting area, generally producing a shot that flies to the right of the target. (With a pond guarding the left side of the green. Ernie Els blocked his approach shot to the right of the flag).

The act of raising and lowering (or lowering and raising) the swing center in the course of the swing. (Because of an inconsistent knee flex in her swing, her bobbing led to inconsistent ball striking).

A score of one over par on a hole. (The bogey on 18 cost him the championship).

Bogey Golfer:
A player's whose handicap is in the range 20 to 24.

Bomb and Gouge:
A style of play where a player hits it as far as possible with the driver (bomb) without as much attention to accuracy and then gouges it out of the rough to get into scoring position. (He shoots lower scores on courses with forgiving rough since he plays a bomb-and-gouge style of golf).

The amount of break a player allows for when hitting a breaking putt. (One of the confusing factors for young players at Augusta National is learning how much they have to borrow on their putts).

Bowed (Swing):
The position of the wrists at the top of the back swing in which the top wrist is bent slightly inward. (For many years, Tom Weiskopf had a bowed wrist at the top of his back swing).

Bowed (Shaft):
All shafts (even Steel) will deform during a golf swing, this process is often called bowing or loading-&-unloading of the shaft. Due to centrifugal forces placed on the haft during the swing it will usually go into an oval shape and bow while in motion. This aids in creating optimized launch and spin numbers.

Bounce (Bounce Angle):
The Bounce angle is a measurement taken on the radius of the Sole, most commonly used in wedges with Terms like High/Mid/Low Bounce often used. In general the more tapered the trailing edge of the club the less the bounce angle. Most wedges will have a degree allocated for bounce angle. Example you may see 56-8 in a SW description, this means it’s a 56 degree wedge, featuring 8 degrees of bounce.

Bounce Back:
Scoring a birdie or better on a hole immediately following a bogey or worse. Also see Reverse Bounce Back.

The amount a putt will curve to the side because of the slope, grain and wind that affect the movement of the ball. (The swale in the middle of the green produced a tremendous break on Palmer's putt).

Bump and Run:
A pitch shot around the green in which the player hits the ball into a slope to deaden its speed before settling on the green and rolling towards the hole. (The mounds and swales at Pinehurst No. 2 resulted in many players hitting bump and runs shots during the U.S. Open).

Playing consistently above your regular handicap or regularly failing to achieve in competition play. It is the opposite of sandbagging.

A hollow comprised of sand or grass or both that exists as an obstacle and, in some cases, a hazard. (The greens at Winged Foot were protected by deep bunkers).

Bunker, Green-side:
A bunker next to or even in a green. See bunker.

Bunker, Fairway:
A bunker located on or in the fairway. See bunker.

A short game played over the remaining holes when the main match finishes early because one player or team has won by a large margin. It serves the joint purpose of adding some competitive meaning to the rest of the holes and also for the losing side to attempt to regain some of the pride lost as a result of their humiliation in the main match. It is usual for the loser of the bye to buy the first drinks in the 19th hole afterwards. In this respect it is an almost direct equivalent to a beer match in cricket.



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Caddie or Caddy:
A person hired to carry clubs and provide other assistance. (A good caddie can be worth several strokes a round).

An auction in which people bid on players or teams in a tournament. (For many years, Calcuttas were a regular event at many popular tournaments).

A rounding of the Sole of the club to reduce drag. A four-way cambered Sole is one that is rounded at every edge of a wood. (The 5-wood had a cambered sole to help it slide through the deep rough).

How far the ball travels through the air. Contrasted with run. Typically regards a shot over a hazard. For example, "This shot requires a 200 yard carry to get over that water."

Cart (also Trolley or Buggy):
(i) A four-wheeled electrical or gas-powered vehicle for use in transporting players and their equipment from hole to hole.
(ii) A hand-pulled (2-wheel) or hand-pushed (3-wheel) cart for carrying a bag of clubs, also available in powered versions controlled by remote.

Casual Water:
Any temporary standing water visible after a player has taken his stance. Snow and ice can also be taken as casual water, as well as water that overflows the banks of existing water hazards.

Carbon Fiber (also Graphite, Carbon Composite) (See Also Multi Material Construction):
Modern golf clubs utilizes various materials allowing engineers the freedom to make shift weight where it is needed most. Utilizing Carbon (most commonly in crowns & soles of Metal Woods) dramatically reduces the weight in that area (even compared to Titanium) which allows better CG placement while having the added benefit of reducing spin rates, promoting the high Launch, low Spin combination as a result.

When a hole is tied in a match and the bet is carried over to the next hole. (He won the 10th hole as well as the carryover).

An uncocking of the wrists prematurely on the downswing, resulting in a loss of power and control. Also known as "hitting from the top." (Smith had a tendency to swing at and not through the ball, which caused him to cast the club from the top of the swing).

A type of iron in which a portion of the back of the club head is hollowed out and the weight distributed around the outside edges of the club head. (The cavity-back irons were far more forgiving than his old blades).

Center of Gravity (Swing):
That point in the human body, in the pelvic area, where the body's weight and mass are equally balanced. (Ian Woosnam has a lower center of gravity than the much-taller Nick Faldo).

CG (also Center of Gravity)(Club):
The Center of gravity is directly influenced by the weighting in the head of a golf club. The lower it is placed by the OEM the higher it will launch and visa versa. The same principle is applicable to flight bias, weight in the heel will make the toe rotate faster, thus helping to induce a "draw" shot shape.

Centrifugal Force (Swing):
The action in a rotating body that tends to move mass away from the center. It is the force you feel in the downswing that pulls the club head outward and downward, extending the arms and encouraging to take a circular path. (Tiger Woods' swing creates powerful centrifugal force.

Center of Rotation:
The axis or swing center that the body winds and unwinds around during the swing. (A stable center of rotation is an important element is solid ball-striking).

Champions Tour (also Senior PGA Tour):
The name used by PGA Tour Champions from 2002 through 2015.

Chicken Wing:
A swing flaw in which the lead elbow bends at an angle pointed away from the body, usually resulting in a blocked or pushed shot. (Once Jack's PGA Professional saw him, he knew the cause of Jack's loss of power was his chicken wing position at impact.)

A short shot (typically played from very close to and around the green), that is intended to travel through the air over a very short distance and roll the remainder of the way to the hole.

Chip and Run:
A low-running shot played around the greens where the ball spends more time on the ground than in the air. (She saved par with a beautiful chip and run that ended inches from the hole).

Clone (also Fake or Imitation):
Budget brand golf clubs that look similar to, and emulate the characteristics of, more expensive clubs without breaching any patents.

A derogatory term describing poor play that results from nervousness. (Early in his career, some critics claimed Tom Watson choked under pressure).

Choke Down:
The act of gripping down on the shaft, which is generally believed to provide greater control. (She choked down on a 7-iron and hit a beautiful pitch to save par).

A poor shot caused by hitting the turf well behind the ball, resulting in a fat shot. (The defending champion's defense ended when he chunked his tee shot on the par-3 16th and hit the ball into the pond guarding the green).

A fairway wood with the approximate loft of a 4-wood that produces high shots that land softly. (He played a beautiful shot with his cleek that almost rolled into the cup).

Closed Club face:
The position formed when the toe of the club is closer to the ball that the Heel, either at address or impact, which causes the clubface to point to the left of the target line. (Her closed club face resulted in her missing several approach shots to the left of the green).

Closed Grip:
Generally referred to as a strong grip because both hands are turned away from the target. (PGA Tour pro Ed Fiori was nicknamed "Grip" because of his closed grip).

Closed Stance:
A description of a stance when the rear foot is pulled back away from the target line. (Her closed stance allowed her to hit a gentle draw of the tee).

A swing in which the club head is closed on the back swing but then manipulated into an open position on the downswing. (Miller Barber was a very effective player, even though he had a closed-to-open swing).

CNC Milling (See Also Milling) :
Computer Numerically Controlled Milling is a precision process whereby club makes utilizes a cutting laser to mill the face instead of the traditional tools. This ensures considerably more accurate milling and has led to some innovative designs in both Irons and Wedges.

Cocked Wrists:
A description of the hinging motion of the wrists during the back swing in which the hands are turned clockwise. Ideally, the wrists are fully cocked at the beginning of the downswing. (He cocked his wrists early in the back swing to hit a high, soft shot over the bunker).

Coefficient of Restitution (C.O.R.):
The relationship of the club head speed at impact to the velocity of the ball after it has been struck. This measure is affected by the club head and ball material. (Testing showed that the new ball had a very high coefficient of restitution). In simpler terms if you swing the club at exactly 100 mph, the ball is not allowed to leave the face at more than 83 mph (C.O.R. Limit = 0.830). Face designs directly impact the amount of C.O.R. a club head will have, thinner face rebound quicker producing higher C.O.R. values and speed.

Counter-Balanced (Club):
Counter balancing a club is a method whereby there is additional weight added to the head of the golf club. To offset this weight the OEM will add additional weight into the butt (grip) section of the club, re-balancing it but with a considerably heavier head mass. The higher head mass is especially effective at Increasing MOI values for more forgiveness and control.

A building on a golf course providing facilities for golfers, typically including changing rooms, bar, restaurant, offices for club officials and noticeboards with information about local rules, the conditions of the course, upcoming events etc. A clubhouse may incorporate a pro shop and dormie house. The clubhouse is normally located adjacent to the first and final holes of the course.

The turning of the body during the back swing. (Her ability to fully coil on the back swing resulted in tremendous power).

Come Over the Top:
A motion beginning the downswing that sends the club outside the ideal plane (swing path) and delivers the club head from outside the target line at impact. This is sometimes known as an outside-to-inside swing. (Sam Snead came over the top slightly, which he felt produced more powerful shots).

A putt required after the previous putt went past the hole.

A measure of the relative hardness of a golf ball ranging from 100 (hardest) to 40 (softest). (Like most powerful players, he preferred a 100-compression ball).

A four-under par shot, for example, a hole-in-one on a par 5. Might also be called "a triple eagle".

Count-back (also Count-Out):
A method of determining a winner of a competition in the event of a tie. There are several different methods used, but typically the scores in the last nine, last six, last three and final hole are compared in turn until a winner emerges.

Conservation of Angular Momentum (COAM):
A law of physics that allows the player to produce large amounts of kinetic energy. As the body shifts its weight and turns towards the target in the forward swing, the mass (arms and club) is pulled away from the center into an extended position by centrifugal force. By temporary resisting that pull as well as the temptation to assist the hit by releasing too early, one maintains the angle formed between the club's shaft and the left arm and conserves the energy until a more advantageous moment. This has been referred to as a "delayed hit," a "late hit," "connection," "lag loading," "the keystone" or COAM, but when performed correctly may simply be called "good timing."

Course (also Golf Course):
A designated area of land on which golf is played through a normal succession from hole #1 to the last hole.

Course Rating:
Course rating is a numerical value given to each set of tees at a golf course to approximate the number of strokes it should take a scratch golfer to complete the course under normal conditions.

Courtesy of the Course:
The waiver of the green fee. Sometimes extended to visiting golfers playing in official competitions, visiting professional golfers and staff of other golf clubs.

A description of a swing in which all the various body parts work harmoniously to produce a solid, fluid motion. (Many players focus upon connection as a key element in the golf swing).

A putting (and, occasionally, full-swing) grip in which the hands are placed in positions opposite that of the conventional grip. For right-handed golfers, a cross-handed grip would place the left hand below the right. Also known as the "left-hand low" grip, it has been known to help players combat the yips.

Croquet Style:
A putting stance popularized by Sam Snead in which the player stands aside the ball, facing the hole, holds the club with a widely-split grip, and strikes the ball with a croquet-type stroke. A similar style, in which the player faced the hole with the ball positioned between the feet, was banned by the United States Golf Association. (A croquet-style putting stroke is popular among players who suffer from the yips).

Crown (Club):
The crown is often referenced in designs and marketing materials. It is the top of a metal wooded club (including hybrids). Its shape and thickness (Weighing) will directly impact the performance, sound and feel of the club.

Cup-Face (Also Face-Cup):
This is a club head design which uses a single piece of steel (or other material) for the face, but wrapping it around to form the sole and/or top-line of the club. This one Piece construction offers considerably better ball speeds across the entire hitting surface as a result of the additional face flex.

Cupped Wrist:
A position in which the left or top hand is hinged outward at the top of the back swing. (Her cupped wrist caused the club to be pointed to the left of the target at the top of her swing.)

Cuppy Lie:
A lie when the ball is sitting down slightly, usually in a small depression. (He had a difficult shot because he had to play from a cup lie in the fairway.)

Cut Shot:
A shot played with a slightly open club face and a swing path that travels out to in. The result is a soft fade that produces additional backspin and causes the ball to stop quickly on the green. (Lee Trevino was known for his ability to play beautiful cut shots).



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Dead Hands:
A shot in which the hands remain relatively passive in the hitting area, resulting in a shot that flies a shorter distance than it normally would. (He dead-handed a 5-iron on the par 3, which confused his fellow players).

Deep (in reference to face height):
A club (usually drivers) with a greater-than-standard height on its face. (His PGA Professional suggested trying a deep-faced driver). These types of clubs will produce lower Launch and Spin numbers when compared to traditional designs.

A decreasing of the club head speed in the hitting area. (Jones decelerated on his putt, and left it short of the hole.)

Delayed Hit:
A golf term used to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum.

The round indentations on a golf ball cover which are scientifically designed to enable the ball to make a steady and true flight. Dimples, by reducing drag, allow a golf ball to stay in the air for a longer flight than would be possible with a smooth ball.

(i) The chunk of grass and earth displaced during a stroke.
(ii) The indentation on the green caused by the ball on an approach shot; more properly called a pitch mark or ball mark.

Dog-Balls (also Snowman):
Scoring an 'eight' on any single golf hole. The origin of the term is in reference to what the number 'eight' looks like on its side; also referred to as the "Snowman."

A hole where the fairway is straight for some distance and then bends to the left or right. These holes are so-named because they resemble the shape of a dog's leg.

Dog License:
A match play contest ending with the winner winning by seven holes, with six remaining (known as 7 and 6), after 12 holes in an 18-hole match or 30 holes in a 36-hole match. Named because the cost of a dog license in the United Kingdom before decimalization in 1971 was seven shillings and sixpence (written 7/6, 37½p in new money), commonly known as seven and six.

Double Bogey:
A score of two over par on a hole. (The double bogey ended her hopes of defending her title).

Double Cross:
A shot whereby a player intends for a fade and hits a hook, or conversely, intends to play a draw and hits a slice. So called because the player has aimed left (in the case of a slice) and compounds this with hitting a hook, which moves left as well.

Double Eagle:
A score of three under par on a hole. (Gene Sarazen's double eagle at Augusta National is one of the most famous shots in golf history).

The point in match play when a player is up in a match by the same number of holes that remain. (When Lanny Wadkins had his opponent dormie three, it seemed like the Americans would win the Ryder Cup). Doubles: When a caddie carries two sets of clubs. (Carrying doubles was hard work in the hot weather, but he never complained).

The swing forward from the top of the back swing. (The club head accelerated smoothly on the downswing).

A shot that flies slightly from right to left for right-handed players. (She hit a draw into the green that stopped two feet from the hole.)

Driving Range:
Another term for a practice area. Also known as a golf range, practice range or learning center. (Watson headed for the driving range following his round.)

Duck Hook:
A shot that flies sharply from right to left for right-handed players. It is usually hit unintentionally, since it is difficult to control. (He hit a duck hook from the tee and the ball flew out of bounds.)

A horrible shot. Typically, this is a shot where very little or no contact is made between the club-face and golf-ball. Also known as Dub, Flub or Shank.

Dynamic Balance:
Transferring the focus of weight appropriately during the golf swing while maintaining body control. (Sue worked with her PGA Professional on improving the dynamic balance of her swing.)



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A score of two-under-par on a hole. (His eagle on the 17th hole assured his victory.)

Early Hit:
When a player prematurely releases the cocking of the wrists on the downswing, resulting in a loss of power at impact. This is also known as "casting from the top." (Her tendency to make an early hit made her one of the shortest hitters in the field.)

Effective Loft (See also Loft):
The actual loft on a club at impact as opposed to the Loft built into the club. Effective Loft is determined by, among other things, the lie and the position of the hands relative to the ball at impact. (The uphill lie added effective loft to the club).

Having a score equal to that of par.

A shot played from a sand bunker, usually when the ball has buried or settled down into the sand. (He played a spectacular explosion shot from the bunker to save par).

The width of the swing as measured by the target arm on the back swing and the trail arm on the follow-through. (Tiger Woods has beautiful extension in his swing.)

European Tour:
One of the world's leading professional golf tours, along with the PGA Tour. Based in Europe, but also co-sanctions the major championships and World Golf Championships in the United States, along with many other tournaments in Asia, Africa and Australia.



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Face (also Club Face):
The face of the club head is the area that the golf ball is struck from. Modern club designs have various techniques, methods and advanced materials to influence how the face reacts during and after impact. Most of these technologies are centered on making the faces “hotter” for greater distances. Harder steel is often selected in irons allowing the faces to be made thinner without losing structural integrity. While Drivers sporting Titanium (Very Strong by nature) tend to utilize milled patterns behind the face to ensure even energy distribution across the face (helping miss hits go further)

Face Balanced (Putter Design):
A Face Balanced putter is designed to have the face sitting horizontally (Parallel to the ground) when it is allowed to balance on your hand or swing weight scale. This design is best suited for players with a “Straight Arc” putting motion and offers the highest MOI values of all putters. The perfect balance is usually achieved by using a double bend (Goose Neck) shaft allowing the head to sit square to the ground.*Ping produced an Anser 5 model with a longer neck for Louis Oosthuizen after he won the Open. It was unique as it featured a traditional shaft and hosel but was Face-Balanced through the considerably longer hosel length.

A shot that flies slightly from left to right. (She hit a gentle fade from the tee and never missed a fairway in the final round). Fanning: An exaggerated opening of the club face as the back swing begins. (He fanned the club open on the back swing and hit mostly slices.)

The area of the course between the tee and the green that is well-maintained allowing a good lie for the ball

Fairway Hit (FH):
A fairway is considered hit if any part of the ball is touching the fairway surface after the tee shot on a par 4 or 5. Percentage of fairways hit is one of many statistics kept by the PGA Tour.

Fairway Markers:
Fairway markers indicate the distance from the marker to the center of the green. Some fairway markers give the yardage. Most are color-coded as follows: yellow=250 yards, blue=200 yards, white=150 yards, red=100 yards (or meters). These colors are not standardized and may vary based on the specific course layout.

Fat Shot:
A description of a shot when the club head strikes the turf behind the ball, resulting in poor contact and a shot that comes up well short of the target. (She hit a fat shot from the tee on the par 3 and, as the ball sank from sight in the pond, so did her chances of victory).

Hole out from outside the green.

A portion of the sole of a club such as a sand wedge or putter. (The wedge's wide flange made it an effective club from the deep, powdery sand).

Flat Swing:
A swing that is more horizontal and less vertical in plane than is typical. (Because he had a flat swing, he had to guard against hooking the ball).

A tall marker, often a metal pole with a flag at the top, used to indicate the position of the hole on a green. Also called the pin. An additional smaller flag, or other marker, is sometimes positioned on the flag-stick to indicate the location of the hole (front, middle, or back) on the green.

Flex (Shaft):
A shafts flex is utilized to help achieve optimal launch conditions for players of all ages and gender. Softer shafts will aid in getting higher launch and spin, while stiffer shafts will lower both the launch and the spin. Weight and flex go hand in hand and generally the lighter the shaft the softer its flex.

Flex (Face):
Face flex is the amount of give a face will endure before rebounding to its original state during impact. Various methods are used to improve this rebound which in turn will directly impact the distance a shot will travel. Thinner faces, cup faces and exotic materials allow the brands to push the limits of speed on all clubs.

A shot from the rough or in wet conditions that reduces the amount of backspin on the ball, causing it to fly lower and farther than it might under normal conditions. (She caught a flier from the light rough and hit her approach shot over the green).

Flip Shot:
A shot, usually played with a wedge, that involves a wristy swing designed to hit the ball a short distance but with a lot of height. (He hit a flip shot over the bunker, landing the ball near the hole).

A ball struck from the deep grass that comes out slowly and travels a shorter distance because of the heavy cushioning effect of the grass between the ball and the clubface. (Gail caught a floater from the rough and hit her approach shot into the pond).

Flop Shot:
Similar to a flip shot except that it involves a long, slower swing. (Phil Mickelson is a master at playing the flop shot).

Fluffy Lie:
A lie in which the ball rests atop the longish grass. This can be a tricky lie because the tendency is to swing the clubhead under the ball, reducing the distance it carries. (The ball came to rest in a fluffy lie near the green, but he played an excellent shot and won the hole).

The distance the ball carries (He can fly the ball 280 yards with his driver) or a shot that carries over the intended target (She flew the green with her approach shot and made a bogey).

That part of the swing that occurs after the ball has been struck. (His powerful follow-through was the result of his long back swing.)

A warning shout given when there is a chance that the ball may hit other players or spectators.

Fore Caddy:
One employed by a golfer or group of golfers to walk ahead of the players in order to spot the fall of their shots and to find their balls. More commonly used in the days of hand-made feathery balls when the cost of replacing a ball would be greater than the fore caddy's fee. Today in professional tournaments, ball spotters are normally placed at each hole for the same purpose.

Forged (Club Manufacturing):
Forging metal is hundreds of years old so it so it is no surprise forged irons are still sought after today by the world’s best players. There are various methods and small variations to the process but in a nutshell a single steel billet will be heated up and hit with a hydraulic press, forging it into shape. This may be repeated multiple times to ensure consistency from head to head. The club heads are then cooled and the excess metal is removed (Generally by hand). Finally the heads will be polished, chrome plated to protect the soft carbon steel and the paint decals will be filled. The key benefits of forging include very soft, responsive feel and very consistent distances with the ability to manipulate flight in most cases.

In match play, a contest between two sides, each consisting of a pair of players, where every individual plays his own ball throughout. On every hole, the lower of the two partner's scores is matched against the lower of the opposition's scores. In stroke-play, a four-ball competition is played between several teams each consisting of 2 players, where for every hole the lower of the two partner's scores counts toward the team's 18 hole total. The term four-ball is an informal reference to any group of 4 players on the course.

Foursomes (Format of play):
In match play, a contest between two sides each consisting of a pair of players, where the 2 partners hit alternate shots on one ball. The first player tees off, the second player hits the second shot, the first player hits the third shot, and so on until the ball is holed. Also partners alternate their tee shots, so that one member of each team will always tee-off on the odd holes and the other will tee off on the even holes. In stroke-play, a foursome competition is played between several teams each consisting of a pair of players, where partners play alternate shots until the SINGLE ball is holed. The term foursome is a common reference to any group of 4 players on the course.

The coordinated action of the lower body during the golf swing. (Tom Watson has some of the best footwork of any player in history).

Forward Press:
A slight movement of the hands and arms (and occasionally the legs) that initiate the golf swing. (A good forward press helps relieve tension in the golf swing).

Forward Swing:
The downward motion of the hands, arms and club from the top of the back swing to impact. Another terms for downswing. (Ben Hogan began his forward swing with a lateral shifting of his left hip towards the target).

The act of hitting a golf ball that ricochets off a tree back onto the fairway.

The closely mowed area surrounding the green. The grass in between the green and the fairway.

Fried Egg:
The slang term for a buried lie in the sand. (To her dismay, when Nancy Lopez reached the bunker she saw she was facing a fried egg lie.)

Front Nine:
Holes 1 through 9 on a golf course.

Various informal achievements, both positive and negative; these differ from traditional achievements like birdies or eagles in that the achievements are for unusual things that may happen in the course of a game. Their main use is to add interest to informal match play games as they enable players to win something regardless of the overall outcome of the match. They are frequently associated with gambling because money, usually small stakes, changes hands depending on which funnies occur.



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The American professional association for golf course superintendents. Analogous to BIGGA in the United Kingdom. 

A putt that other players agree counts as made without being played. It's only officially used within the rules of golf during match play — known as a conceded putt — and unofficially used during casual stroke play to help pace of play (Suzy had a 2-foot putt that her partner said was a gimmie and good.)

Golf Range:
A facility where people can practice their full swings and, in some cases, their short games. (In Japan, golf ranges are very popular because the number of golf courses is limited).

Grand Slam:
The Modern (or Professional) Grand Slam describes winning the four professional Major Championships -- the PGA Championship, the Masters and the United States and British Opens -- in a calendar year. The Career Grand Slam describes winning each of these events once in a career. Only Gene Sarazen, Ben Hogan, Gary Player, Jack Nicklaus and Tiger Woods have accomplished this. No one has ever won the Modern Grand Slam. In 1930, Bobby Jones won the U.S and British Amateurs and Opens, a feat which was termed the Grand Slam and has never been duplicated. The 28-year old Jones retired from competitive golf that year.

The direction which the blades of grass grow, which is of primary importance on the greens (particularly Bermuda grass greens) as this can affect how much and in which direction a putt breaks. (Sam Snead won many tournaments in Florida because he was so adept at reading the grain in the greens).

The area of specially prepared grass around the hole, where putts are played.

An older, outdated term for the course superintendent. (He was the greenkeeper at Merion for many years).

Green Fee:
The charge made for a round of golf by the course management.

Is a variation of foursomes, where each side consists of 2 players. Both players play one tee-shot each from every tee. A choice is then made as to which is the more favorable of the 2 ball positions, the other ball being picked up. Thereafter the players play alternate shots. So if A's tee-shot is selected, the playing order from the tee will be A-B-A-B etc. until the ball is holed out. If player B's tee-shot is selected, the playing order will be B-A-B-A etc. The team with the lowest score wins the hole.

Green in regulation (GIR):
A green is considered hit "in regulation" if any part of the ball is touching the putting surface while the number of strokes taken is at least two fewer than par (i.e., by the first stroke on a par 3, the second stroke on a par 4, or the third stroke on a par 5). Greens in regulation percentage is one of many statistics kept by the PGA Tour.

Grind (Wedges) (See also Bounce):
The grind angle of a wedge will determine how it will perform and what sort of player it is suited too. Most brands offer options when it comes to grinds, some offering larger wider soles (higher Bounce) to aid players in lush conditions, or from bunkers. Others may be designed for a golfer classified as a “Sweeper” (Shallow attack angle) allowing them to slide through the turf without the club “bouncing” off the ground at impact.

Grip (Club) (See Also Strong-Grip & Weak-Grip):
A grip in regards to a club is located on the back of a golf club, furthest from the head. It is players only contact point with the club, yet despite its importance many players overlook the importance of the correctly sized grip during fittings. The most commonly used compound is rubber but there are a variety of materials ranging from leather to silicone on the market today.

Grip (Playing):
The placing and positioning of the hands on the club. The various types include the Vardon or overlapping, the interlocking and the 10-finger or baseball grip. (The Vardon grip is the most popular grip today). There is also the reverse-overlapping grip, in which the index finger of the left or top hand overlaps the smallest finger of the right or bottom hand. This is primarily used in putting, although some players use this grip when chipping the ball.

Groove(s) (Club Face):
Grooves are cut into clubfaces to aid in imparting backspin during impact (Very few drivers use traditional grooves in the modern era, opting instead for laser or CNC Milling. Modern designs based within the groove limitation has seen grooves evolve and pushed up against the limit. Most now aid in dispersing moisture & degree during impact as a secondary feature. Some Brands have also started milling or laser milling additional grooves in between the traditional grooves to further increase surface roughness and more Spin.

Groove (Practice):
A description of a swing that consistently follows the same path, time after time. (In his post-round interview, Curtis Strange said his swing was in the groove all day, resulting in a 65.)

When referred to in the Rules of Golf, it means the point when the club touches the ground (or water) prior to playing the shot. (It is against the Rules of Golf to ground your club in a hazard).

Grounding the club:
To place the club-face behind the ball on the ground at address. Grounding the club is prohibited in bunkers or when playing from any marked hazard.

Ground under repair (GUR):
An area of the golf course that is being repaired. A free drop is allowed if the ball lands in an area marked "GUR".

Gross score:
The total number of strokes taken for a hole (or round) before accounting for a golfer's handicap.

Group Lesson:
A teaching session in which several pupils work with one or more PGA Professionals. This type of lesson is particularly effective for beginners, especially juniors. (The PGA of America offered group lessons for youngsters as part of the city's summer recreation program).



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Half (Match Play):
In match play, a hole is halved (or tied) when both players or teams have played the same number of strokes. In some team events, such as the Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup (except for singles matches in the latter competition while its overall outcome remains in doubt), a match that is tied after 18 holes is not continued, and is called "halved", with each team receiving half a point.

Half Shot:
A shot played with an abbreviated swing and reduced swing speed. This shot is often played when trying to keep the ball out of a strong wind. (With so much at stake, Amy Alcott played a half shot to the final green and made a comfortable par).

A numerical measure of a golfer's potential that is used to enable players of varying abilities to compete against one another.

Halfway house or Halfway hut:
A building, generally between the 9th and 10th holes, providing light snacks and refreshments for golfers during their round.

A player with too much wrist movement in their golf swing or putting stroke, causing inconsistent shots or putts.

Hard, usually bare, ground conditions. Generally, hard-pan refers to hard, dry clay, with very little or no grass.

Any bunker or permanent water including any ground marked as part of that water hazard. Special rules apply when playing from a hazard.

The part of the club head nearest the hosel. (Fuzzy Zoeller addresses the ball off the heel of his driver). A shot hit off the heel is said to be "heeled."

A club design where weight is distributed towards the Heel and Toe of a club, usually in iron and putters, to reduce the effect of miss-hits. (When he played with heel-and-toe weighted irons, his scores improved).

High Side:
The side of the hole that a putt breaks from. (He missed the putt on the high side of the hole).

A player who favors a forceful, aggressive style of swing. (Arnold Palmer has been a hitter of the ball throughout his career).

A circular hole in the ground which is also called "the cup", 4.25 inches (108 mm) in diameter.

Hole in one:
Hitting the ball from the tee into the hole, using only one stroke.

Hole in one insurance:
Many tournaments offer large prizes if a player shoots a hole in one on a particular hole. Indemnity insurance is often purchased to cover the cost should anyone make the hole in one. Hole in one insurance is also available for individuals to cover the cost of a round of drinks in the event of their achieving a hole in one.

Hollow Body Construction (Club Technology):
In the modern era more and more brands are offering irons featuring Hollow Body Construction. This is due to the construction being hollow on the inside of the head, unlike Undercut Cavity (pocket Cavity’s) that still have a visible open perimeter weighting in the back of the club head, Hollow Body irons are “Sealed” making them look like a solid piece of metal. The benefits of this construction are dramatic as it allows considerably more face flex for greater distances and vastly improves distances from poorly struck shots. The design also leans towards the clubs resembling more traditional looking blades but performing like oversized irons. Irons like TaylorMade’s P790 and PXG’s 0311 irons are great example’s

The act of placing the hands ahead of the ball, both at address and impact, which tends to reduce the effective loft of the club. (Because he was trying to hit his shot under the tree limbs, Tom Kite hooded a 6-iron and ran the ball onto the green).

A shot that curves sharply from right to left for right-handed players. (When playing the par-5 13th at Augusta National, many players try to hit a sweeping hook from the tee.)

The hollow part of the club head connecting the shaft to the club head. It is the elongated part attached to the face and resembles a "neck" in its shape. (When the PGA Professional studied Tom's 5-iron, he saw that it was bent at the hosel.)

A type of club, increasingly popular in the 21st century, that in the broadest sense combines the mechanics of a long iron with the more forgiving nature and distance of a fairway wood. Most golfers today carry at least one hybrid.



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The moment in the swing when the club strikes the ball. (Betsy's feet slipped at impact, resulting in a poor drive.)

A description of the swing path that, all things being equal, will produce the greatest percentage of solid, straight and on-target shots. It refers to a path in which the club head travels from inside the target line, to impact, and then back inside the target line. (Once she developed an inside-to-inside swing, her ball striking improved dramatically).

A swing path in which the club head approaches the ball from inside the target line and, after contact, continues to the outside of the target line before turning back to the inside of the target line. (Every so often, his inside-to-out swing path resulted in shots that missed the target to the right).

Intended Line of Flight:
The direction a player plans for his ball to begin after impact. (Because she planned to hit a hook from the tee, her intended line of flight was at the right hand fairway bunker).

In contention:
A player with a chance of winning a tournament is said to be "in contention". A player who rises up the leader board throughout the course of their final round is said to be "moving into contention".

Interlocking grip:
Grip style where (for right-handed players) the pinkie finger of the right hand is hooked around the index finger of the left.

Inward nine (also back nine):
The back nine holes of a golf course, so named because older links courses were designed to come back "in" toward the clubhouse after going "out" on the front nine.

A club with a flat-faced solid metal head generally numbered from 1 to 9 indicating increasing loft.

Iron Byron:
A testing device modeled after Byron Nelson's swing. It is used to test clubs and balls. (After tests using Iron Byron, the new balls were measured to be longer.)



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The scientific study of man's movement and the movements of implements or equipment that he might use in exercise, sport or other forms of physical activity.

Kinetic Energy:
The form of energy associated with the speed of an object. Its equation is: KE=1/2mv2(squared); or kinetic energy= ? mass x velocity squared. (It is obvious from the formula that increasing club head velocity has more potential for producing distance than increasing the club head weight.)

A type of shot designed to have a very low trajectory, usually employed to combat strong winds.



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Launch Angle (Also Launch):
The launch angle is the angle at which the ball takes off from the ground after impact. The ground is taken as 0 degrees and the height it took off from is the measurement to determine the launch angle. All modern fitting systems provide this data accurately and will help to find the optimal equipment for your game.

A shot (usually a pitch, chip or putt) designed to finish short of the target. (Since the green was severely sloped from back to front, he hit a lag putt that stopped just short of the hole.)

Lateral Slide or Shift:
A movement early in the forward swing in which the hips begin to slide to the target and rotate while, at the same time, weight begins to shift from the trail side to the target side. The timing of this motion is crucial to a proper swing. (The commentators were impressed by the young player's lateral shift).

Lay Off:
When the swing plane flattens out at the top of the back swing, it causes the club to point to the side of the target and the face to close. (His PGA Professional watched him hit a few balls and then told him that he was getting the club laid off at the top of his back swing.)

A stroke deliberately played with a shorter range club than to reach the pin, in order to position the ball in a certain spot. This may be done to ensure a more comfortable next stroke or to avoid a hazard.

Leading Edge (see also Trailing Edge):
The leading edge of a club (usually referenced in irons or wedges) refers to the very front edge of the sole, or the part of the sole which will impact the ground first during a swing. This angle will determine how the club head will react during impact.

Learning Center:
A complete practice and instruction facility, which may or may not be on the site of a golf course. (While there was no golf course nearby, she was able to work on her game at the local learning center).

A term describing a score of even par. (Jones was level-par after the first round of the Open).

Lever System:
The skeletal system is composed of numerous bones which, in mechanical terms, act as levers. The two primary levers in the golf swing are: 1) the target arm, comprised of the radius and ulna of the lower arm and the humerus in the upper arm, and 2) the club when the target wrist becomes cocked.

Lie (On course):
As it relates to the ball, the position of the ball when it has come to rest. (He hit his drive into the rough, but luckily had a good lie). As it relates to the club, it is the angle of the sole of the club relative to the shaft. (He liked the sand wedge but the lie was too flat.)

Lie Angle (Club):
The lie angle of the club is measured by assuming the ground is zero and measuring the degrees from the ground to the hosel. Lie angles will affect turf interaction, striking on the face and flight patterns.

A slang term describing an outstanding round or stretch of holes. (She played lights-out after the turn). Line: The intended path of the ball, usually referred to in the context of putting. (She judged the line perfectly and made the putt).

Line of Flight:
The actually path of the ball. (There was a grandstand in his line of flight, so the Rules official allowed him to take a drop without penalty).

The term for a course built on links land, which is land reclaimed from the ocean. It is not just another term for a golf course. (The Old Course at St. Andrews is the most famous links in the world.)

Lob Shot:
A short, high shot, usually played with a wedge, designed to land softly. (He played a delicate lob shot over the bunker and saved his par).

Local Rule:
An addition to the rules of golf applying to abnormal conditions that may be found on a particular golf course.

The degree or angle on the club face, with the least loft on a putter and the most on a sand wedge. (Tom Kite popularized the sand wedge with 60-degrees of loft.) It also describes the act of hitting a shot. (Kite lofted his approach over the pond).

Long Irons:
The 1-4 irons. (The long irons are often difficult for people to hit, so PGA Professionals often recommend replacing them with fairway woods or hybrids)

Looking Up:
The act of prematurely lifting your head to follow the flight of the ball, which also raises the swing center and can result in erratic ball-striking. (Once she stopped looking up, her scoring improved dramatically).

The shape of the swing when the back swing and forward swing are in different planes. (Jim Furyk has a distinct loop in his swing but his swing is very effective). Loop also refers to a round of golf. (The caddie finished his morning loop and then went right back out without eating lunch.)

Loosened Grip:
Any time a player opens his fingers and loses control of the club. When this happens at the top of the back swing, it is often referred to as "playing the flute." (Once he made the grip changes his PGA Professional suggested, his problem with a loosened grip was corrected.)

Loose impediment:
A small natural item which is not fixed or growing, solidly embedded, or stuck to the ball, such as a small stone or leaf. Unless found within a hazard players are generally permitted to move them away, but if the ball is moved while doing so, there is a one-stroke penalty (except in greens, so long as the ball is put back).

(i) A U.S.-based organization that operates the world's most significant women's golf tour. From its inception, it has included female club and touring professionals in its membership—unlike men's golf in the U.S., in which club and touring professionals have been represented by different bodies since 1968.
(ii) Any of several other national organizations, modeled after the U.S. LPGA, supporting women's professional golf. These bodies may follow the U.S. model, or may be devoted solely to touring pros.



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Made cut did not finish (MDF):
In some tournaments (previously used by the PGA Tour and The Open Championship), the scoreboard term used for those players who made the cut after the first two rounds, but were subject to a second cut after the third round. The cut line on the PGA Tour is generally the top 70 and ties but if more than 78 players made the cut, the second cut again reduces the field to the top 70 and ties. Second cut golfers earn prize money and FedEx Cup points and credit for the finish (i.e. MDF is not tracked like missed cuts, withdrawals, and disqualifications).

The most prestigious golf tournaments. In the modern game the Masters Tournament, U.S. Open, The Open Championship and the PGA Championship are considered the men's major golf championships. The Kraft Nabisco Championship, LPGA Championship, U.S. Women's Open, Women's British Open and The Evian Championship are currently considered the women's major golf championships. Historically, from before the dominance of the professional game in the mid 20th century, the British and U.S. Amateur Championships are also often considered men's majors. Sometimes, people refer to The Players Championship as "The Fifth Major".

(i) A small metal or plastic disk used to mark the position of a ball on the green if it has been lifted for cleaning etc.
(ii) A person appointed by the Committee to record a competitor's score in stroke play. They may be a fellow-competitor.

Mashie Niblick:
An obsolete name for an iron club with the loft similar to a modern 7 iron. The term became redundant with the introduction of numbered clubs, "matched sets", in the first half of the 20th century.

Match Play:
A form of golf play where players or teams compete against each other on a hole-by-hole basis. The total number of strokes does not determine the winner. Instead, the number of holes won determines the winner. It is possible to win in match-play with more strokes than your opponent.

The mechanics of a golf swing or putting stroke. (Nick Faldo constantly works on the mechanics of his swing).

Medal Play:
Generally a synonym for stroke play but sometimes used in a more specific sense, referring to the stroke play qualifying rounds preceding a match play stage.

The leader in the Medal play qualifying rounds preceding a match play stage.

Member's Bounce:
Any favorable bounce of the golf ball that improves what initially appeared to be an errant shot.

Mega Flop Shot:
Similar to a flop shot, but it involves keeping the club face wide open and swinging at full swing to achieve maximum height over a short distance (She hit a mega flop shot up a steep hill to set up a birdie putt).

Middle or Mid-irons:
The 5-7 irons. (He was very accurate with his middle irons, which helped set up a lot of birdies.)

Term used to describe a (usually low handicap) amateur golfer who is over a certain age but is not yet old enough to qualify for the senior ranks (i.e. under 50 or 55 years of age). The minimum age limit for Mid-Am competitions varies widely by country and organization, for example, the USGA men's and women's mid amateur championships have a minimum age limit of 25, and the English Mid-Amateur (Logan Trophy) run by England Golf has a minimum age limit of 35.

A misread is to incorrectly discern the correct line of a putt.

Monday Qualifier:
A stroke play golf tournament held on the Monday before a professional golf tournament that awards top finishers entry into the tournament.

Moving Day:
The penultimate day of a four-day tournament, so called because it is the day where competitors try to set themselves up for the final push on the final day.

Mud Ball:
A golf ball that has soil or other debris stuck to it which can affect its flight. Under normal rules of golf one is only allowed to clean a ball in play when it is on the putting green. During exceptional conditions this rule may be waived by a local rule (see Preferred lies).

The custom of hitting a second ball -- without penalty -- on a hole, usually the 1st tee. (Mulligans are not allowed according to the Rules of Golf, but some fun/social golf events will allow them).

Milling (See Also CNC Milling):
Milling is a process often used in irons and wedges aiding in more delicate designs coming to fruition allowing more forgiveness and distance to be generated in modern irons. Milling can also be used to shape entire club heads if needed.

Moment of Inertia (MOI) (Forgiveness & Stability):
It is the measurement of forgiveness in a club head with a maximum allowed value of 5900 g/cm2. Generally speaking the lower and further away from the face the weight is placed, the more forgiving, or the higher the MOI value becomes. Another term often used is Lower and Deeper CG location, indicating the weight has been lowered in the sole and pulled away from the face.

Multi-Material Construction (also Multi-Metal Construction):
When manufactures build club heads using 2 or more materials it is referred to as multi-material construction. Its main role is for more precise CG positioning, allowing enhanced distances, more Forgiveness or a combination of the two. Drivers usually utilize carbon fiber and/or Tungsten weighing with their Titanium bodies. Irons have used a mix of Titanium (Body or faces), Tungsten, carbon fiber, Aluminum, maraging steel and other lightweight materials, combined with their steel bodies.



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Nassau (Format of Play):
A competition in which points are awarded for winning the front nine, back nine and overall 18. (Nassaus are the most popular form of betting game.)

Nett (Format of Play):
Competitions sometimes includes Nett winners. The Nett score is calculated by taking the players Gross score and deducting his/her handicap from it.

A club of the highest loft in the iron family. Used for short-distance shots.

No Card (NC) (also No Return):
If a player does not turn in a scorecard for a round the player is recorded as "NC" for the round. An exception is if the player is injured and withdraws.



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Off-Green Putting:
When a player elects to putt from off the green rather than chip. (She favored off-green putting because she lacked confidence in her chipping and pitching).

A measure of the distance between the leading edge of the hosel and the leading edge of the club face. (The added offset on his new irons helped reduce his slicing). Offset aids in squaring up the clubface, the more of it a club has the easier it becomes to square the face during the swing.

One-Piece Takeaway:
Sometimes called the "modern" takeaway, it describes the beginning of the back swing when the hands, arms and wrists move away from the ball, maintaining the same relationship they had at address. (Sam Snead is credited with developing the one-piece takeaway).

On the Charge:
A player is said to be "on the charge" when stringing together birdies to move into contention during the final round of a stroke play tournament.

Open Clubface:
When, either at address or during the swing, the Heel of the club head is leading the toe, causing the clubface to point to the side of the target. (An open club face caused him to hit his approach shot to the side of the green.)

Open Grip:
Also referred to as a Weak Grip, it is when the hands are turned counter-clockwise on the club. (His open grip made it difficult for him to hook the ball).

Open Stance:
When the left or lead foot is pulled back farther from the target line than the rear or right foot. This stance generally helps promote a left-to-right ball flight. (Since she played from an open stance, it was easy for her to fade the ball around the large tree).

A description of the movement of the club face when a player fans it open on the back swing and then closes it at impact. (When his timing was correct, his open-to-closed swing produced wonderful shots).

Open Face:
When (in relation to the target line) the club-face is angled away from the player's body, i.e. angled right for right-handed players.

Open Stance:
When a player's front foot is drawn backwards further from the target line. Used to fade the ball or to prevent a hook.

Outside Agent:
Any agent not part of the match or, in stroke play, not part of the competitor's side. Referees, markers, observers, and fore-caddies are outside agents. Wind and water are not outside agents.

Outward nine:
Refers to the first nine holes, so named as links golf courses were set up where the first nine holes went "out" away from the clubhouse.

Out of Bounds:
During play if the ball crosses the predetermined white boundary lines it will be deemed as out of bounds. The player needs to re hit from the same position and add a penalty stroke.

A description of a swing path when the club head approaches the ball from outside the target line and then continues to the inside of that line following impact. (His outside-to-in swing path allowed him to hit his approach shot very near the pin, which was cut on the right side of the green.)

To pick the wrong club, usually for an approach shot, causing the ball to go over the green. (He overclubbed his approach to the 18th green, and his ball came to rest in a shrub.)



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The speed of the golf swing (He had a beautiful pace to his swing) or the speed of the greens (The greens at the PGA Championship had a quick pace, which the better putters favored).

Paddle Grip:
A putting Grip with a flat surface where the thumbs rest. (Ben Crenshaw's old putter had a paddle Grip).

The score an accomplished player is expected to make on a hole, either a three, four or five. (The 12th hole at Augusta National is one of the most famous par 3s in golf).

The direction the club travels during the swing or the putting stroke. This is best observed from an overhead view. (When they studied the videotapes in the learning center, they saw that she had a pronounced outside-to-in swing path).

Pendulum Stroke:
In putting, a stroke that moves the club head back and forth on a constant line, without deviation. (His pendulum stroke made him a very effective putter).

The outer most edges of a surface, either on the body, crown, sole or most commonly the face can be referenced when club technologies are explained.

Perimeter Weighting:
One of the first technologies to make their way into golf club design it remains in use today. The practice of perimeter weighting pushes discretionary weight to the furthest extremes of the surface (usually around the face). This improves stability allowing for greater precision on miss hit shots.

Any Professional Golfers' Association, for example the Professional Golfers' Association of America.

PGA Tour:
The organizer of the main male professional golf tours in the United States and North America.

PGA Champions Tour :
A tour for male golfers age 50 and over, held mostly in the U.S., operated by the PGA Tour.

Slang for Flagstick

Pick Up:
When the golf ball is picked up before finishing the hole.

Refers to a ball on the green that is positioned along an imaginary horizontal line through the hole and across the width of the green.

Pinch Shot:
A shot played around the green in which a player strikes the ball with a crisp, clean descending blow. (She pinched the ball off a perfect lie and holed the shot).

Pistol Grip:
A Grip, usually on a putter, that is built up under the left or top hand. (He had a pistol grip placed on his new putter).

A shot from around the green, usually with a middle or short iron, where the ball carries in the air for a short distance before running towards the hole. (She played a beautiful pitch-and-run to within a foot of the hole).

Pitch mark:
A divot on the green caused when a ball lands. Players must repair their pitch marks, usually with a tee or a divot tool.

Play through:
Permission granted by a slow-moving group of players to a faster-moving group of players to pass them on the course.

Plugged lie:
A bad lie where the ball is at least half-buried. Also known as a "buried lie" or in a bunker a "fried egg".

A method many players use to help them determine the amount a putt will break. It involves positioning yourself behind the ball and holding the putter vertically so it covers the ball. In theory, the shaft of the putter will indicate the amount the ball will break. It does not, however, measure the speed of the green, which is an important element is reading a putt. (Ryder Cup Captain Curtis Strange often plumb-bobs his putts.)

The rotation of the body around a relatively fixed point, usually the spine. (Throughout his career, people have marveled at Fred Couples' full pivot).

To try and hit the ball harder than usual. (He thought he could carry the trees and so he pressed with his driver). This also describes an extra effort to play well. (When he bogeyed the first two holes, he began to press). In betting terms, it's an additional bet made after a playe r falls behind in a match. (When he fell two-down in his match, he pressed).

Preferred Lies (alos Placing):
A Local rule that allows the ball in play to be lifted, cleaned and moved on the fairway during adverse course conditions.

Pre-shot routine:
The steps an experienced player goes through to get ready for his or her shot. It usually involves taking practice swings and visualizing the intended shot.

Pro (Professional):
A golfer or person who plays or teaches golf for financial reward. They may work as a touring pro in professional competitions or as a teaching pro (Also called a club pro).

Pro shop:
A shop at a golf club, run by the club professional, where golf equipment can be purchased.

An inward rotation of the hands towards the body's center-line when standing in a palms-facing-forward position. (The term was inaccurately used for many years to describe the rotation of both hands through the impact area. In fact, one hand, the right, was pronating while the left was supinating. Obviously, it is impossible to pronate both hands through the shot.)

Private Lesson:
Generally speaking, when a PGA Professional gives a lesson to a single pupil. (After losing in the club championship, she had a private lesson with her PGA Professional).

Pulled Hook:
A shot that begins to the side of the target line and continues to curve even further away. (He hit a pull hook off the 18th tee in the final round, but luckily the ball stayed in bounds.)

Pulled Shot:
A relatively straight shot that begins to the side of the target and doesn't curve back. (She pulled her shot and ended up in the left-hand bunker.)

Pulled Slice:
A shot that starts well to the side of the target but curves back to the target. (He hit a pulled slice that landed safely on the green.)

Punch Shot:
A low-flying shot played with an abbreviated back swing and finish. The key to the shot is having the hands slightly ahead of the club head at impact, which reduces the effective Loft of the club. (With the winds howling off the ocean, she played a beautiful punch shot into the green.)

A push, or block, is shot that unintentionally travels on a trajectory opposite the side of the ball from which the player swings. In match play, a push occurs when neither competitor wins the hole.

Pushed Hook:
A shot that begins to the side of the target but curves back to the target. (Under the pressure of the final round, he hit a pushed hook from the tee of the 17th hole.)

Pushed Shot:
A shot that starts to the side of the target and never curves back. (He pushed his tee shot into the right rough.)

Pushed Slice:
A shot that starts to the side of the target and curves further away. (His pushed slice on the first hole flew out of bounds, setting the tone for the match.)

A shot played on the green, usually with a putter.

Putting green:
A practice green is a putting surface usually found close to the club house, used to warm up and practice putting.

A special golf club with a very low loft that makes the ball roll along the green with top-spin.



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Since 2004 the governing body of golf throughout the world except the United States and Mexico, where this responsibility rests with the United States Golf Association (USGA). It works in collaboration with national amateur and professional golf organizations in over 110 countries. The R&A is a separate organization from the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews which formerly performed this role.

The distance between the center of the swing arc (the target or forward shoulder) and the hands on the Grip. (Because of his unusually long arms, his swing had a large radius.)

Raised Swing Center:
Elevating the central area in the body (somewhere between the top of the spine and the center of the neck) around which rotation takes place. What the novice frequently refers to as "looking up" and results in a swing that is too high.

Range Finder:
A measuring device used to determine one's relative distance to an object. In golf, they are most commonly used to find out how far a player is from the hole.

To hit a putt with a short, firm stroke. (Former PGA Champion Gene Sarazen liked to rap his putts).

A hole that has a green which slopes downward and away from the point of entrance, typically the front right portion of the green, inspired by the original Redan hole on the North Berwick West Links, Scotland.

Reading the Green (or Putt):
The entire process involved in judging the break and path of a putt. (Her caddie, Tom, was a genius at reading a green).

To successfully hit a shot from a poor location. (Throughout his career, Arnold Palmer was known for his ability to boldly recover from trouble).

The act of freely returning the club head squarely to the ball at impact, producing a powerful shot. (Tiger Woods has a textbook release of the club at impact).

Reverse-weight-shift (alos Reverse Pivot):
A swing flaw in which the weight moves forward on the back swing instead of to the back leg. (His reverse weight shift caused him to be a poor driver of the ball.).

The coordination of movement during the golf swing or putting stroke. (For generations, Sam Snead's golf swing has been the model of perfect rhythm).

Road Hole:
The par-4 17th hole at the Old Course at St. Andrews, one of the most famous and difficult holes in the world. (His approach on the Road Hole missed the green and cost him the British Open).

Round Robin:
A tournament format in which players or team play a variety of other teams, the winner being the player or team that accumulates the highest number of points. (The two brothers always teamed in the club's Fall Round Robin).

The area of a golf course that is not closely mown (has longer grass) is referred to as the rough. It is more difficult to execute shot from longer grass. Most holes will line their fairways sand green surroundings with rough, encouraging the player to play towards the fairway and green.

Rowan Match play (Format of Play):
A form of singles match play which can be played by 3 or more players. Players begin all playing against one another until one player wins a hole outright posting the best score than all other playing partners on a hole. That player is then 1 up versus all of their combined playing partners who now form a team against the player leading and try to get the match back to all-square. In a 3 player game, after someone goes 1-up, the match then takes the form of the leading player versus the scores of the other two players.

Rub of the Green:
Occurs when the ball is deflected or stopped by a third party/object, e.g. if a ball is going out of bounds and is deflected in bounds by hitting a spectator or a tree.

The distance a ball travels once it lands. The two distances of a golf shot are first its "carry" and then its "run."

A small headed niblick for hitting the ball from a cart track.



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Sand save:
When a player achieves par by getting up and down from a green-side bunker. Sand save percentage is one of many statistics kept by the PGA Tour.

Sand trap:
See bunker. Golfers with a deep knowledge of the game rarely refer to a bunker as a sand trap.

Sand wedge:
A lofted club designed especially for playing out of a bunker. The modern sand wedge was invented by Gene Sarazen. Although sand wedges were designed for bunker shots, they are actually used for all types of shots within 100 yards (90 meters).

Sandy (or Sandie):
A score of par or better that includes a bunker shot. Sandys are counted as points in some social golf games. If a par or better is achieved after hitting two or three bunker shots on the same hole, the terms double sandy or triple sandy are used, respectively. See Funnies.

Scoring Clubs:
The driver, putter and sand wedge. (He devoted much of his practice to the scoring clubs.)

Scotch foursomes (Format of Play):
In scotch foursomes teams of 2 players compete against each other. Players alternate hitting the same ball. The first player tees off, the second player hits the second shot, the first player hits the third shot, and so on until the ball is holed. To this point, the definition of ‘scotch foursomes’ is the same as that of ordinary ‘foursomes’; however, players do not alternate hitting tee shots as they would in foursomes. If Player A teed off on the first hole and Player B holed the final putt, Player B would not tee off at the second, meaning that Player A could, in theory, play every tee shot on the round. The team with the lowest score wins the hole.

(i) When a player misses the green in regulation, but still makes par or better on a hole. Scrambling percentage is one of many statistics kept by the PGA Tour.
(ii) A two or four man format, similar to Best Ball, except in a scramble, each player strikes a shot, the best shot is selected, then all players play from that selected position.

Scratch golfer:
A player's whose handicap equals zero.

Describes a competition for older golfers, or individuals who play in such competitions. In men's professional golf, the standard lower age limit is 50. Some competitions use 45 (the Legends Tour in women's golf) or 55 (the U.S. Senior Amateur) as the lower limit.

Senior PGA Tour:
The original name of the tour now known as PGA Tour Champions; used from 1980 through 2001.

Semi-Private Lesson:
An instruction format where a limited number of pupils work with a Professional. (When the triplets wanted to take up golf, their parents arranged for them to take semi-private lessons with their PGA Professional).

When any of the various body parts and/or the club move either faster or slower that the other elements of the swing. (He worked very hard to prevent his arms from separating on the downswing).

The process of addressing the ball, so that the club and body are properly aimed and aligned. (Since his setup was so good, he could occasionally recover from the slight errors in his swing.)

Shaft (Club):
The shaft in essence is the engine of the golf club and its design properties will greatly change the ball flight characteristics of the shot. There is a magnitude of shafts available in both Steel & Graphite variants catering for any swing speed and/or tempo of golf swing.

Shallow in reference to face height (See Also Deep):
The term shallow is often used when discussing the launch conditions of a club head (most commonly fairways and hybrids). It describes a face which is lower in total height when compared to standard face. It lowers the CG location very effectively allowing higher launch as a direct result.

Shamble (Format of Play):
A format, similar to a scramble, where every player hits from the tee, the best tee-shot is selected, and each player holes-out from the selected tee-shot.

Shank (also Pipe or Hosel Rocket):
When the ball is struck on the hosel of the club, usually sending it shooting off to the right. (He hit a shank on his approach to the 9th hole, and the ball almost struck his caddie).

To curve a shot to fit the situation. (His ability to shape a shot really impressed the older players). The word is also used to describe the flight of the ball. (The usual shape of his shots was a fade).

A severe hook, named because it resembles the shape of a shrimp.

Shoot your (my) age:
A round of 18 holes where a given player has a score equal to, or less than, a player's age. For example, an eighty-year-old man who scores an 80 has shot his age.

Shoot your (my) temperature:
A round of 18 holes where a given player has a score equal to 98 or 99. Since this is not a good score, it is usually used to deride an opponent.

Short game:
Shots that take place on or near the green. Putting, chipping, pitching, and green-side bunker play are all aspects of the short game.

Short side:
To hit a shot that misses the green to the same side in which the hole is cut. This typically results in a difficult following shot with very little area on the green to land and stop the ball.

Short Game:
Those shots played on and around the green, including putting, chipping and pitching, and bunker shots. (To go along with his power, Tiger Woods has a phenomenal short game).

Short Irons:
The 8 and 9 irons and the pitching wedge. The sand wedge is considered a scoring or specialty club. (He wanted flatter-than-standard lies on his short irons).

A position in the swing when the club face is closed relative to the target line. (The cause of his poor driving was a shut club face at the top of the back swing).

Telling the ball to drop softly, and not roll after landing.

A skins game pits players in a type of match play in which each hole has a set value (usually in money or points). The player who wins the hole is said to win the "skin", and whatever that skin is worth. Skins games may be more dramatic than standard match play if it is agreed by the players that holes are not halved. Then, when any two players tie on a given hole, the value of that hole is carried over and added to the value of the following hole. The more ties, the greater the value of the skin and the bigger the eventual payoff.

To skull the ball means to contact the ball with the leading edge of the iron, often resulting in a low shot that goes further than expected with little to no spin. A skulled shot is almost always due to a mishit by the golfer. The terms "blade" and "thin" are also used interchangeably with skull.

A high, short shot caused by the club head striking the underside of the ball. Also known as a "pop-up." (He skied his tee shot and the ball barely reached the fairway).

A shot that initially takes a trajectory on the same side of the golf ball from which the player swings but eventually curves sharply back opposite of the player. Under normal circumstances, a slice is unintentional; however, good players can use a slice to their advantage in certain situations. Slices are often the most common miss for below-average players. A shot that follows the same trajectory but to a lesser degree is referred to as a 'cut' or 'fade'. A cut or fade is often intentionally used by above-average players to achieve a certain type of spin. The curved shape of the ball-flight is the result of sideways spin. For that reason a "slice" does not refer to a putt.

Slope Rating:
Slope Rating is a number, from 55 to 155, used to determine the level of difficulty of a golf course for a bogey golfer. An "average" course has a slope rating of 113.

Snap Hook:
A severe hook that usually goes directly left as well as curving from right to left, for a right-handed golfer. A snap hook is when a severe left to right hook occurs for a left-handed golfer.

To score an eight on a hole is to score a snowman. So-named because an eight (8) looks similar to the body of a snowman.

An organized group of golfers, usually not affiliated with any individual golf course. Members are often drawn from the same workplace, profession, alma mater, or other association.

When referring to equipment, it is the bottom of a club. (The sole of his wedge had become rusty over the winter). When referring to the swing, it is the point when the sole of the club touches the ground at address. (When he soled his club, the ball moved and he called a penalty on himself).

A design, usually for fairway woods, that incorporates additional weight along the sole of the club. This makes it easier to get the ball into the air and is also effective from the rough. (Many players in the PGA Championship had sole-weighted clubs in their bags because of the deep rough.)

Move your marker when in the way of another persons line of putt.

The pace of a putt. Proper 'speed' of a putt will either hole the putt or leave it about 18 inches beyond the cup. Furthermore, the speed of the putt will often determine the amount of curve, or break, in a putt.

Spine (Shaft):
The spine of a shaft is created when the sheets of steel used to make the shaft, is wrapped around a mandrel and the shaft is plasma welded into shape. (Steel) Alternatively for graphite this seam is formed where the carbon sheets are over laid. Modern manufacturing sees OEM’s have the capability to create multi spines if they so choose.

Splash Shot:
A shot played from a good lie in the bunker. The club "splashes" through the sand, throwing the ball into the air. (He splashed the ball out of the bunker, landing the ball within a foot of the hole).

A term for a 3-wood that is seldom used today. (He reached the par 5 with a driver and a spoon).

Another term for marking the ball on the green so it might be lifted. (He put a spot on his ball so he could clean it before putting).

Spot Putting:
Using an intermediate target such as a discolored blade of grass or an old ball mark as a means of aiming a putt. (Once he began spot putting, his scores began to improve.)

Generally, this refers to playing badly. Sprachle is a Scottish term.

To hit the ball with a grossly inconsistent direction, compared to the intended target, in a seemingly random manner.

The position of the feet at address. (He played most shots from an open stance).

An attempt to guide the flight of the ball that usually results in a loss of distance. (He tried to steer the ball off the 1st tee, but wound up hitting a weak push into the rough).

The description of a club with very little Loft, such as a driving iron, or a driver that lacks the standard bulge and roll. (Because of the strong winds, he often drove with a straight-faced iron).

Stability (Club):
When stability is referenced it is usually an indicator of its MOI value, allowing the head to be more forgiving.

Stableford (Format of Play):
A points based scoring system. The number of strokes taken on each hole relative to par translates into a set number of points, with the winner being the player who accumulates the highest number of points.

Stimp meter:
A device used to measure the speed of putting greens. The term Stimp Reading will often be referenced by courses or commentators during televised golf. The higher the number the faster the faster the green speed is.

A low, piercing tee shot typically hit with a long iron by placing the ball further back in the stance and avoiding flipping the wrists at impact. (Tiger Woods masterfully uses the stinger to control tee shots into the wind).

A type of golf hole design where the player has a choice of shots that can be played to make par on the hole. Generally the choices that have the least chance of entering a hazard are intended to have the least chance of making par. Compare with Penal.

An English golf term dating back to the late 1800s which means, a shot that lands close to the flag stick.

Strong Grip:
A terms used to describe a grip in which the hands are turned counter-clockwise on the Grip. It does not connote a stronger-than-normal grip pressure. (Former PGA Champion Paul Azinger has a strong grip.)

Stroke Index:
A number assigned to each hole, and printed on the score card, to indicate the holes on which handicap strokes should be taken.

Stroke play:
Style of scoring in which the player with the fewest strokes wins. Most professional tournaments are stroke play.

To block another player's putting path to the hole with one's own ball. Now an anachronism since the rules of golf permit marking the spot of the ball on the green, thus allowing the other player to putt into the hole without obstruction.

Sunday Bag (also Rifle bag):
A small and lightweight golf bag. Traditionally caddies were not available on a Sunday, so the golfer would carry their clubs in such a bag. Now often used to carry a small number of clubs or when traveling to play golf when a full size bag would be unnecessary or inconvenient.

An outward rotation of the hands (thumbs turning out) away from the body's center-line when standing in a palms-facing-the-body position. In the golf swing it is the right-hand rotation motion on the backswing and the left's on the forward swing.

An exaggerated lateral movement of the body on either the back swing, forward swing, or both, which results in inconsistent shot making. (His PGA Professional suggested a drill to correct his swaying).

Sweet Spot:
The point on the clubface where, if it is struck with an object, the club face will not torque or twist to either side. (To find the sweet spot on his putter, he held the grip with his thumb and forefinger and let it hang vertically. Then he tapped the face of the putter with the eraser-end of a pencil until the putter head moved back without any torquing or twisting).

The movement a golf player makes with his/her body and club to hit the ball. A golf swing is made up of a series of complex mechanical body movements. A perfect golf swing is regarded as the "holy grail" of the sport, and there are many approaches as to how to achieve "perfection". Although there is only one "textbook" golf swing, a perfect golf swing is unique to every individual, and, in fact, it is impossible for a human to perfectly duplicate the textbook golf swing.

Swing Arc:
The entire path the club head makes in the course of a swing. It is a combination of the swing's width and length. (His swing arc resulted in tremendous club head speed).

Swing Center:
A point, usually near the base of the neck and the top of the spine, around which the arms and upper body rotate during the swing. (Since his swing center remained constant throughout the swing, he was a very consistent ball striker).

A player whose swing is based on timing and rhythm, as opposed to a "hitter," whose swing is based on sheer power. (Gene Litter is a textbook example of a swinger).

Swing Plane:
An imaginary surface that describes the path and angle of the club during the swing. (As a rule, tall players tend to have a more upright swing plane than shorter players).

Swing-Weight (Club Measurement) (See also Balance):
Swing weight is determined by using a swing-weight scale to balance a golf club horizontally. The grip end is inserted into a holing position and the club is rested on the scale. A sliding weight with predetermined markings is then moved until the club balances perfectly. At this point the value indicated by the sliding weight markings is the Swing-Weight of the club.

Swingweight Scale:
A device for measuring swingweight (see above). (Every PGA Professional and club fitter knows how to use a swingweight machine to balance any club head to the desired specifications).

A term frequently used in golf. It can be used to describe a stance (His feet, hips and shoulders were all square to the target line) or the club face (His club was perfectly square to the target line) or to describe contact with the ball (The key to greater driving distance is making square contact). It can also refer to the status of a match (The were all-square (tied) at the turn).



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The movement of the club at the start of the back swing. (Her slow takeaway set the pace for her entire swing).

Often called a "gimme", a tap-in is a ball that has come to rest very close to the hole, leaving only a very short putt to be played. Often, recreational golfers will "concede" tap-ins to each other to save time.

Target Line:
An imaginary (often visualized) line drawn behind and through the ball to the point a player is aiming. If the player is planning to curve the ball, this point is the initial -- not the ultimate -- target. (Jack Nicklaus visualizes his target line before every shot).

A small peg, usually made of wood or plastic, placed in the ground upon which the golf ball may be placed prior to the first stroke on a hole. May also refer to the teeing ground.

Tee Box (also Teeing Ground):
The area from which you hit your drive or tee shot. The teeing ground for a particular set of tees is two club lengths in depth. The ball must be teed between the markers, called tees, that define the teeing ground's width, and no further back than its depth. Tees are colored, but there is no standard for colors. The "teeing ground" refers to one set of tees. Most courses have at least three sets of tees; some have more than twice that many. The areas where tee markers are placed are called "tee boxes".

The speed of the swing (not necessarily the club head speed). (Ernie Els has a beautiful tempo).

Texas Wedge:
A term describing a shot played with a putter from well off the green. It is a good shot for players who lack confidence in their chipping and pitching, or in extremely windy conditions. (Under tournament pressure, he often played a Texas wedge, rather than risk chipping the ball).

Thin Shot:
Usually, an unintentional, poor shot where the club-head strikes too high on the ball. When taken to an extreme but still at or below the center-line of the ball, it is known "blading" the ball. Sometimes, when the ball is lying a certain way around the green, advanced players will intentionally hit a thin shot to achieve certain results.

Three-Quarter Shot:
A shot played with a shortened backswing and lessened arm speed. (With the winds blowing off the ocean, he played a three-quarter shot into the 15th green).

A rise or level in a green or tee. (It was important to land you approach shot on the proper tier).

Tiger Slam:
Winning four consecutive major championships but not in a calendar year.

The championship tees on a golf course are known as "the tips".

The sequence of motions within the golf swing. (Her timing was so good that it made up for her minor swing faults).

Lightweight high strength material used in club heads (All Modern drivers use Ti). The material was responsible for the size of driver heads growing rapidly, until a legal imitation of 460cc was placed. Most drivers on the market today are at 460cc, however some better player drivers feature slightly smaller heads ranging between 420cc-445cc

The toe of a clubhead is located on the face at the furthest point from the hosel. Any shot hit off the toe area of the club is referenced as "toe'd"

Topped Shot:
A low, bouncing shot caused by the bottom of the club striking the top half of the ball. (He topped his drive on the 1st tee and never regained his composure).

A player's sense of feel, generally around the greens. (Ben Crenshaw has always had great touch).

A phrase coined by the creators of the "NoLayingUp" Twitter account. It originally referred to things amateurs would do to imitate the mannerisms and speech of PGA Tour pros. It has since evolved to include any saucy thing done by PGA Tour players, such as club twirls, re-checking the yardage book after hitting a shot over the green or waving to people on a boat after playing a shot from near Lake Michigan.

The height and angle the ball travels when struck. (Great players are able to control the trajectory of their shots).

The change of direction in the swing, from the back swing to the forward swing. (It's very important to make a smooth transition in your swing).

Trailing Edge (see also Leading Edge):
The trailing edge of a club (usually referenced in irons or wedges) refers to the back of the club’s sole, or the part that will touch the turf last during a swing. Its angle will determine how the club head will react during impact.

Triple Bogey:
A hole played three strokes over par.

Three consecutive birdies during one round of golf.

Tungsten (Material used in Construction of Clubs):
Tungsten is a high density, high mass metal allowing engineers the ability to create complex designs with extreme Weight placements while using very little of the club head volume. They can for example add a 2 x 20 Gram weights to the toe and heel of an iron. A pocket is milled out and he small (but Heavy) tungsten is inserted. This would dramatically improve MOI for example.



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Undercut Cavity (also Undercut)(Iron Design):
There is a variety of names and different methods used to create an undercut cavity in a club-head. This process is normally only for irons but some wedges have utilized it. The club head is created (Cast or Forged) with a solid piece of steel where the cavity will eventually be. The cavity is usually Milled out creating a gap between the face the Weight placement (Lower & Deeper). This method improves, distance, forgiveness and allows for greater freedom with CG placement.

The release of straightening of the wrists during the downswing. (She uncocked her wrists prematurely, causing her to lose power in her swing).

A player can declare his ball unplayable at any time when it is in play (other than at a tee), and can drop the ball either within two club-lengths, or further from the hole in line with the hole and its current position, or where they played his last shot. A penalty of one stroke is applied. A ball declared unplayable within a hazard must be dropped within that hazard.

A steeper-than-normal swing plane. (His upright swing helped him escape from the rough). Upright also refers to a club's lie in which the shaft is placed at a steeper-than-standard angle. (His PGA Professional suggested upright lies in his long irons).

Up and down:
The situation where a player holes the ball in two strokes starting from off the green. The first stroke, usually a "pitch", a "bunker shot" or a "chip", gets the ball "up" onto the green, and the subsequent putt gets the ball "down" into the hole. A variation is called "up and in".

United States Golf Association. The governing body of golf for the U.S.A. and Mexico. Together with The R&A, the USGA produces and interprets the Rules of Golf.

The principal organization for golf professionals in the USA. More commonly called the "PGA of America".



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Vardon Grip:
A common grip style in which (for right-handed players) the right pinkie finger rests on top of the left index finger. Also known as the overlapping grip, it is named for Harry Vardon, a champion golfer of the early 20th century.

Variable Thickness (also Multi Thickness) (Club Design):
Manufactures utilize “thick-thin” methods on the face of golf clubs, allowing them to achieve better results and more consistent distances for the player. There are various patented patterns all generally speaking thinning out the outer perimeter of the face allowing more flex on off center hits.

Vaulting Dormie:
A possible occurrence in match play when a player or team converts a lead into a victory without passing through dormie, a guaranteed minimum of a tie at the end of regulation play—for example, converting an 8-hole lead with nine to play into a 9-hole lead with eight to play, or converting a 1-hole lead with two to play into a 2-hole lead with one to play.

A quantity or measure related to force that has both magnitude and direction. An important factor in determining the distance and direction a ball travels.

A mental image of a swing or shot or even an entire round. (Once she began visualizing her shots, her scoring improved dramatically.)



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A motion or several motions designed to keep a player relaxed at address and help establish a smooth pace in the takeaway and swing. (His father told him to try and copy Sam Snead's waggle.)

Weak Grip:
A term describing a grip where the hands are turned to the left for a right-handed player. (When Ben Hogan weakened his grip he began fading the ball.)

Weighting (Club):
Club weighting will affect the CG locations and allow engineers to create clubs which perfrom in a desired way. A Heel weighted driver for example will tend to be easier to close during a swing, thus helping a player struggling with a fade to hit it straighter.

Weights (Movable or Sliding Weights in club heads):
First introduced by TaylorMade in 2007, we see most brands utilizing some form of MWT (Movable Weight Technology) in their products today. This feature allows CG changes to either alter flight bias (Fade/draw) or launch (Higher/Lower)

Whiff (also Freshie):
A complete miss. Also known as an "air ball." He was so nervous that he whiffed his drive.)

Leading a tournament after every round (may or may not include ties)

A type of club where the head is generally (except for the club-face) bulbous in shape, so named because the head was originally made of wood, although almost all are now metal. Of all the categories of clubs, woods have faces with the lowest degrees of loft.

Worm Burner:
A shot that is hit remarkably low and sometimes hard.



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Yardage Marker:
These are colored posts or discs on the fairway which denote specific distances to the center of the green. Although the distances may vary course to course and hole to hole, most courses use the standard of a black and white striped stake to indicate 150 yards to the center of the green.

A condition, generally believed to be psychological, which causes a player to lose control of his hands and club. In Great Britain, the condition is referred to as the "Twitchies." This generally occurs when putting or in the short game, but it can also afflict people when hitting a tee shot. (Bernhard Langer has fought the yips for much of his professional career.)